Tana River County is a county in the former Coast Province, Kenya. It is named after the Tana River. Tana River County borders Garissa County to the North, Isiolo County to the Northwest, Lamu County to the Northeast, Kilifi County to the Southeast, Taita Taveta County to the South, and Kitui County to the West. It has an area of 35,375.8 square kilometres (13,658.7 sq mi) . The capital and largest town is Hola (sometimes known as Galole). Tana River County constitutes 3 constituencies (Garsen, Galole and Bura).
Tana river county has a population of 240,075 according to the 2009 national population census. The major ethnic groups are the Pokomo, many of whom are farmers, and the Orma and Wardey, who are predominantly nomadic.
The county is generally dry and prone to drought. Rainfall is erratic, with rainy seasons in March–May and October–December. Despite the apparent adequate natural resources, the region remains marginalized from the rest of the country. Efforts at development always seem to centre on the huge River Tana, as it provides water for irrigation projects in the district, i.e. Bura, Hola and the Tana delta rice irrigation project which failed after the water works were damaged by the El Niño rains in 1998.
Riverine forest, woodland, grassland, bush lands, lakes, open river channels, sand dunes, mangroves and coastal waters contribute to making Tana River County one of the most ecologically diverse habitats and a tourist attraction in the country. The county has potential for massive irrigation projects in the Tana River Delta that traverses the county. During the dry seasons the delta provides the perfect grazing grounds for livestock.